Julius Caesar

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Bust of Caesar in the British Museum
Gaius Julius Caesar (100 BC–44 BC) was a Roman military leader, politician, and writer. From 49 BC to his death he was the effective sole ruler of Rome and instituted many reforms including a revised calendar very similar to that still used today. He was assassinated by a group of conspirators on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC. After his death he was proclaimed a god by the Senate. The series of wars following his death led ultimately to the emergence of Caesar's adopted son Octavian as the first Roman Emperor under the name of Augustus.

British connection

In 55 BC and again in 54 BC, Caesar invaded Britain, as described in his book De Bello Gallico ("On the Gallic War").

LGBT History

Caesar was married three times, and had several female lovers, famously including Queen Cleopatra of Egypt. He was also said to have had male lovers, including King Nicomedes IV of Bithynia. Suetonius says that in Caesar's Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, "Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar,"[1] and that he was referred to as "Every woman's man and every man's woman."[2]

The poet Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra were lovers,[3][4] but later apologised.[5]


  1. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Julius*.html#49 Suetonius, Julius 49.
  2. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Julius*.html#49 Suetonius, Julius 52.
  3. http://www.vroma.org/~hwalker/VRomaCatullus/029x.html Catullus, Carmina 29
  4. http://www.vroma.org/~hwalker/VRomaCatullus/057x.html 57 Catullus, Carmina 57.
  5. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Julius*.html#73 Suetonius, Julius 73.