Timeline of UK LGBT History
From LGBT History UK
Note: strictly speaking the year 2000 belongs to the 20th century, but for convenience it is treated here as belonging to the 21st (and similarly with other centuries).
1st century BC
- 55 BC – Julius Caesar's first invasion of Britain.
1st century AD
- AD 43 – Roman invasion and establishment of the province of Britannia.
- 122 – Emperor Hadrian visits Britain.
- 286 – Britain becomes independent from the Roman empire for ten years under Carausius and Allectus.
- 343 – the emperor Constans visits Britain.
- 410 – usual date for the end of Roman rule in Britannia.
- c547 – Death of King Maelgwn of Gwynedd.
- 597 – St Augustine becomes first Archbishop of Canterbury.
- late 6th century – Findchán and Áid the Black cursed by St Columba.
- 670 – St Theodore of Tarsus, Archbishop of Canterbury, prescribes fasts and penances for various homosexual acts.
- 1066 – Battle of Hastings and Norman conquest of England.
- 1100 – Death of King William II.
- 1102 – Council of London condemns homosexuality.
- 1109 – Death of Saint Anselm
- 1123 – Rahere founds St Bartholomew's Hospital.
- 1125 – Hilarius writing around this time.
- 1167 – Death of Saint Aelred
- 1187 – Gerald of Wales describes the practice of same-sex marriage in Ireland.
- 1189 – William Longchamp, Bishop of Ely, appointed to rule England while Richard I is away on the crusades.
- 1199 – Death of King Richard I
- c.1290 – Publication of Fleta, first book to suggest a punishment (which was not enforced) for homosexuality in English law.
- 1327 – summary execution of Piers Gaveston.
- 1327 – Murder of King Edward II.
- 1376 – The Good Parliament petitions King Edward III to banish foreign traders for having introduced "the too horrible vice which is not to be named".
- 1386 – Richard II makes Robert DeVere Duke of Ireland.
- 1391 – Death of Sir John Clanvowe and Richard Neville.
- 1395 – John Rykener arrested for cross-dressing.
- 1400 – Death of King Richard II
- 1533 – Buggery Act 1533 brings in the death penalty (hanging) for gay sex in England.
- 1540 - Sir Walter Hungerford executed for treason and buggery.
- 1541 - Nicholas Udall convicted of buggery and imprisoned.
- 1542 - The Laws in Wales Act 1542 extends English laws, including the Buggery Act 1533, to Wales.
- 1593 - Death of Christopher Marlowe in suspicious circumstances.
- 1603 – King James VI of Scotland becomes King of England as James I, uniting the two crowns but not yet the two countries.
- 1625 – Death of King James I.
- 1625 – Death of Francis Bacon (philosopher).
- 1628 – Assassination of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham.
- – Jeremy Farrer found "abusing himself in a sodomitical manner" in a church.
- 1631 – Mervyn Tuchet beheaded for alleged sodomy with his page.
- 1660 – Foundation of the Royal Society by John Wilkins and others.
- 1664 – Death of Katherine Philips.
- 1678 – Titus Oates invents the "Popish Plot".
- 1682 – Arabella Hunt's marriage is dissolved as her husband is discovered to be a woman.
- 1688 – "Glorious Revolution" brings William III to power.
- 1702 – William III dies, succeeded by Queen Anne.
- 1703 – First performance of Tunbridge-Walks by Thomas Baker, containing a "molly" character.
- 1706 – Thomas Vaughan convicted of blackmail.
- 1707 – Act of Union unites England and Scotland as the Kingdom of Great Britain.
- 1726 – Three men convicted of sodomy following cases brought by Thomas Newton and raids on Mother Clap's Molly House.
- – Death of Sir Isaac Newton, Britain's greatest scientist, sometimes considered to have been gay.
- 1727 – Charles Hitchen convicted of attempted sodomy.
- 1732 – Beggar's Benison Club founded in Anstruther, Scotland.
- 1737 – Robert Thistlethwayte, Warden of Wadham College Oxford, flees to France to escape prosecution.
- 1742 – First performance of Handel's Messiah.
- 1748 – Publication of Roderick Random by Tobias Smollett, including an explicitly gay character.
- 1749 – Publication of Fanny Hill by John Cleland, sometimes thought to have been a homoerotic work in disguise.
- – Publication of a defence of homosexuality, Ancient & Modern Pederasty Investigated and Exemplify'd by Thomas Cannon.
- 1772 – Robert Jones publishes the first book on figure skating, but is convicted of sodomy.
- 1780 – The Ladies of Llangollen set up home together.
- 1781 – Edward Onslow forced to resign his seat in Parliament and flee to France.
- 1784 – William Beckford's affair with William Courtenay is publicised, causing them both to flee the country.
- 1801 – Act of Union creates the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
- 1806 – Gay club discovered in Great Sankey, Cheshire.
- 1807 – Suicide of James Massey
- 1810 – The White Swan, Vere Street raided.
- 1822 – Percy Jocelyn deposed as Bishop of Clogher for "Sodomitical practices".
- 1824 – The Vagrancy Act 1824 limits cruising.
- – Suicide of Lord Castlereagh.
- 1835 – James Pratt and John Smith were the last two men to be hanged for sodomy in England.
- 1859 – sudden resignation of Charles John Vaughan as Headmaster of Harrow School, for reasons not explained until the 1970s.
- 1861 – The Offences against the Person Act 1861 abolished the death sentence for gay sex.
- 1864 – Robert Browning's poem "Sludge the Medium" denounces Daniel Dunglas Home.
- 1865 – James Barry, army surgeon, dies and is allegedly found to have been a woman.
- 1866 – The case of Hyde v Hyde and Woodmansee established the definition of marriage in English law.
- 1871 – "Fanny" and "Stella" (Ernest Boulton and Frederick Park) acquitted of sodomy and cross-dressing.
- 1873 – The painter Simeon Solomon fined for cottaging.
- 1880 – The police raid a drag ball in Manchester.
- 1883 – Publication of A problem in Greek ethics by John Addington Symonds, one of the first essays in defense of homosexuality in the English language.
- 1885 – Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 made "gross indecency" (homosexual acts, even in private) a crime. The "Labouchere Amendment" was known as the “Blackmailer’s Charter”.
- 1889 – the Cleveland Street scandal
- 1895 – Oscar Wilde convicted of gross indecency.
- – Winston Churchill successfully sues for libel.
- 1897 – First English-language publication of Sexual Inversion by Havelock Ellis and John Addington Symonds, the first medical textbook about homosexuality.
- 1898 – Birth in Hull of Elsa Gidlow, Canadian/American lesbian poet.
- 1899 – Public Morality Council formed.
- 1900 – Death of Oscar Wilde.
- – Death of Samuel Butler.
- 1909 – Death of Renée Vivien.
- 1912 – Birth in Worthing of Harry Hay, later a leading gay activist in the United States.
- 1914 – Henry Scott Tuke elected to the Royal Academy.
- 1916 – Execution of Sir Roger Casement.
- 1921 – Parliament rejects an attempt in the Criminal Law Amendment Bill 1921 to ban sex between women.
- 1924 – Death of Marie Corelli
- 1928 – Publication of lesbian novel The Well of Loneliness by Radclyffe Hall.
- 1929 – Death of Edward Carpenter.
- 1933 – A court in London heard of "disgusting behaviour" at Selina Hopps' dance club.
- 1936 – Death of Hugh Lygon.
- 1936 – Oliver Baldwin appointed Governor of the Leeward Islands.
- 1938 – Sigmund Freud flees from Austria and takes up residence in Hampstead
- 1943 – Ethel Walker, painter, made a Dame.
- 1946 – Sir George Mowbray convicted of importuning.
- – Sir Alec Guinness said to have been fined for cottaging.
- 1947 – Lord Mountbatten presides over the independence and partition of India.
- 1950 – Harry Hay helps found the Mattachine Society in the USA.
- 1951 – Roberta Cowell has sex-change surgery.
- 1952 – Alan Turing convicted of gross indecency.
- 1953 – Sir John Gielgud convicted of importuning.
- 1954 – Lord Montagu of Beaulieu convicted of gay offences.
- – Suicide of Alan Turing
- 1955 – Publication of Homosexuality by D J West.
- 1956 – Knighthoods awarded to Anthony Blunt (cancelled in 1979) and John Wolfenden
- 1957 – Wolfenden Report recommends decriminalisation of homosexuality.
- 1958 – Albany Trust and Homosexual Law Reform Society formed.
- – Ian Harvey MP arrested in St James's Park.
- 1959 – Screening on ITV of South, thought to be the first gay-related drama on British television.
- 1960 – Georgina Turtle (previously George Turtle) has her birth certificate changed from male to female.
- 1961 – Release of the film Victim.
- 1962 – John Vassall arrested and charged with spying.
- 1963 – Founding of lesbian magazine Arena Three.
- 1964 – Death of Nancy Spain in an air crash.
- 1965 – Founding of lesbian organisation Kenric.
- 1966 – Founding of trans organisation the Beaumont Society.
- – publication of trans-related book I want what I want.
- 1967 – Sexual Offences Act 1967 partially decriminalises sex between men in England and Wales.
- – Joe Orton murdered by his partner.
- 1968 – the Home Secretary confirms that Sir Ewan Forbes is male and can succeed to the baronetcy, despite having been registered and originally borught up as female.
- 1969 – the Stonewall riots in New York.
- – founding of the Scottish Minorities Group.
- 1970 – First GLF meeting.
- – Death of E M Forster
- 1971 – the Corbett v Corbett case, involving April Ashley, established the precedent that a person's sex could not legally be changed from what it was at birth.
- 1972 – release of trans-related film, I want what I want.
- 1973 – Death of Sir Noël Coward.
- 1974 – London Lesbian and Gay Switchboard launched.
- 1975 – Brighton and Hove LGBT Switchboard launched.
- – Gay Sweatshop theatre company founded.
- 1976 – John Curry wins a gold medal for skating at the Winter Olympics.
- – Death of composer Benjamin Britten.
- 1977 – Death of Sir Terence Rattigan
- – Peter Mitchell stamds as "Westminster Campaign for Homosexual Civil Rights" candidate in the Cities of London and Westminster South by-election.
- 1978 – Tom Robinson releases the song "Glad to be Gay".
- – the film Nighthawks is released.
- 1979 – CHE moves its office to London.
- 1980 – Heaven, the first all-week gay nightclub, opens in London.
- – Scotland decriminalises male homosexuality.
- 1981 - London Bi Group forms, the first bi-specific social/support group.
- 1982 – Terrence Higgins Trust the HIV/AIDs charity formed.
- 1983 – Long Yang Club founded for gay Asians and non-Asians.
- – Northern Ireland decriminalises male homosexuality.
- 1984 – Chris Smith MP, Culture Secretary, becomes first MP to come out as gay whilst in office. In 2005, he was the first politician to disclose he was HIV positive.
- 1985 – Goslings Swimming Club founded.
- 1986 – GLC and metropolitan county councils abolished.
- 1987 – Gay men convicted for S&M sex in Operation Spanner.
- – Pink Paper founded.
- 1988 – Section 28 passed.
- 1989 – Stonewall (UK) launched.
- 1990 – UK-MOTSS founded.
- 1991 – Death of Freddie Mercury.
- 1992 – Death of Francis Bacon (artist).
- 1993 – Back Pocket Guide to London first published.
- 1994 – Age of consent for gay men reduced to 18.
- 1995 – Adonis Art Gallery founded.
- 1996 – Derek Rawcliffe banned from acting as an assistant bishop in the Ripon diocese.
- 1997 – Angela Eagle is first sitting MP to come out as lesbian.
- 1998 – LGBT Consortium founded.
- 1999 – Admiral Duncan pub bombed (30 April).
- 2000 – Ethical Standards in Public Life etc. (Scotland) Act 2000 repeals Section 28 in Scotland.
- 2001 – Croydon Friend closed.
- 2002 - First Cake Awards presented.
- 2003 – Section 28 repealed in England and Wales.
- 2004 – Civil Partnership Act 2004 gives legal equal rights to lesbian and gay couples.
- 2005 – Murder of Jody Dobrowski.
- – First Civil partnerships performed.
- 2006 – Europride held in London.
- – Alegri founded.
- 2007 – Sexual Offences (Jersey) Law 2007 lowers the Age of consent in Jersey to 16.
- 2008 – Age of consent lowered to 16 in Northern Ireland.
- 2009 – First Derek Oyston Film Award.
- 2010 – LGBT London website set up.
- 2011 – LGBT History Project website set up.
- 2012 – Europride held in London.
- 2013 – Government introduces Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Bill; it becomes law as the Marriage (Same-Sex Couples) Act 2013.
Some other LGBT timelines:
- Wikipedia: Timeline of (world) LGBT history: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_LGBT_history
- Wikipedia: Timeline of UK LGBT history: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_LGBT_history_in_Britain
- Timeline of events recorded in the Hall-Carpenter Archives: http://www2.lse.ac.uk/library/archive/online_resources/lgbt/timeline.aspx
- Gay Chronicles from the beginning of time to the end of World War II: http://www.webcitation.org/5knsbJ2KF
- Stonewall (UK) History of LGB equality: http://www.stonewall.org.uk/at_home/history_of_lesbian_gay_and_bisexual_equality/default.asp
- NHS Northwest LGB&T Timeline: http://www.help.northwest.nhs.uk/lgbt_timeline
- PCS Proud Ourstory: http://web.archive.org/web/20101226051702/http://www.pcsproud.org.uk/our_story.pdf retrieved via the Internet Archive
- Glasgow Lesbian Archive and Information Centre timeline: http://www.womenslibrary.org.uk/laic/laictimeline/laictimeline.html
- Jobcentre Plus Timeline of gay history: http://lgbthistorymonth.org.uk/website/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/9631_GHW-A3FlagPoster.pdf
- GLBTQ Encyclopedia: United Kingdom History http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/united_kingdom_01.html
- UK Gay News Timeline Of Gay and Lesbian Marriage, Partnership or Unions Worldwide: http://ukgaynews.org.uk/marriage_timeline.htm
- Black British Lesbian Timeline: http://blackbritishlesbian.typepad.com/